Ancylostoma duodenale


Ancylostoma duodenale is small cylindrical worm, greyish-white in color. It has two ventral plates on the anterior margin of the buccal capsule. Each of them has two large teeth that are fused at their bases. A pair of small teeth can be found in the depths of the buccal capsule. Males are 8 mm to 11 mm long with a copulatory bursa at the posterior end. Females are 10 mm to 13 mm long, with the vulva located at the posterior end; females can lay 10,000 to 30,000 eggs per day. The average lifespan of Ancylostoma duodenale is one year.

When a filariform larva (infective stage) penetrates the intact skin, the larva enters the blood circulation. It is then carried to the lungs, coughed up, and swallowed back into the small intestine. The larva later matures into an adult in the small intestine and female worms can lay 25,000 eggs per day. The eggs are released into the feces and reside on soil. Embryonated eggs on soil will hatch into juvenile 1 stage (rhabditiform or noninfective stage) and mature into filariform larvae. The filariform larvae can then penetrate another exposed skin and begin a new cycle of infection.

Ancylostoma duodenale is prevalent in southern Europe, northern Africa, India, China, and southeast Asia, small areas of United States, the Caribbean islands, and South America. This hookworm is well known in mines because of the consistency in temperature and humidity that provide an ideal habitat for egg and juvenile development. It is estimated 1 billion people are infected with hookworms. Transmission of Ancylostoma duodenale is by contact of skin with soil contaminated with larvae.


Light infection causes abdominal pain, loss of appetite and geophagy. Heavy infection causes severe protein deficiency or iron deficiency anemia. Protein deficiency may lead to dry skin, edema and potbelly, while iron deficiency anemia might result in mental dullness and heart failure.

The eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus cannot be distinguished. Larvae cannot be found in stool specimen unless they are left at ambient temperature for a day or more.

Education, improved sanitation and controlled disposal of human feces are important. Wearing shoes in endemic areas can reduce the prevalence of infection as well.

Ancylostoma duodenale can be treated with albendazole, mebendazole and benzimidazoles. Pyrantel pamoate is an alternative. In severe cases of anemia, blood transfusion may be necessary.


Recommended Testing Facility


Parasitic Infection in America

There’s no use denying it, reports of parasitic infection have been appearing more frequently, and in places you might not expect. Some estimates place the infection rate at 90% in the US alone. Another estimates shows that as many as 50% of preschool children are infected with pinworm. With symptoms like; chronic Fatigue, irregular digestion, and irritated bowels, many people will go through they life never suspecting that a parasitic infection is causing their symptoms. This is a major risk to the health of Americans, one which is still under the radar.


Why would Americans worry about parasites? Parasites are found in every economic climate, though they are more prevalent poorer countries. Literally every facet of our survival deal with parasites, such as in our food and drinking water. There are 150,000 different kinds of parasites, and there are even fewer laboratories that do broad spectrum tests.  Parasites are often discovered in surgery, during operation on a failed organ. Not only does this shock surgeons, but I’m certain it shocks patients as well.

Are you at risk? You may not believe your in the risk group. Well, you’re wrong. Do you eat food? Drink Water? (which I’m going to guess you do)  you are at risk for parasitic infection!

Roundworm from pets:  Most cats and dogs have a roundworm infection. By sleeping with your pet, you greatly increase the chance of getting a parasitic infection from them!

Raw fish:  Many parasites can be found in raw fish. Among them, the Anisakis roundworm. This worm can cause fatal organ damage if left untreated. Due to the lack of FDA inspectors, only 10% of fish is inspected. Even still, you cannot tell if a fish is infected just by looking it at. Many can only be viewed on the microscopic level. There no way to tell if fish you’r eating is safe. Cooking a fish thoroughly can help insure any parasites within the fish are killed.

Tap water: There have been many cases of parasitic infections spreading from contaminated tap water. Many hundreds of people have died from this. Many more people continued on, never knowing the sometimes fatal damage being done to them.

Food: Many foods you eat come from other countries, and there is no way to insure your food is not contaminated without giving it a good wash with soap. However, even if you buy local, that doesn’t mean the food is parasite free.


Common parasites found in human intestines:

Pork Tape Worm (Taenia Solium): Infections come from eating raw or under cooked pork  Larvae grow in the body, causing cysts which can occur in the brain, leading to seizure and death.

Round Worms: According to “The WHO” one billion people are infected with round worms. Growing over 14″ long, and laying 200,000 eggs each day, these worms can cause intestinal blockages. Symptoms include rashes, stomach pain, asthma, eye pain and more, often depending on what part of the body houses the infection.

Pin Worms: An infection commonly found in children. The CDC states in some countries the infection rate is as high as 61%. Children can often get pin worms from playing dirt. Usually there are no symptoms but itching of the anus. Children are at high risk for parasitic infections.

Giardia Parasite: Giardia is the most common intestinal parasites in people. Contaminated water, food, or soil. Symptoms may include fatigue, diarrhea, stomach cramps,   nausea, and chills.

Whip Worms: Infecting more then 500 million people, this worm can lay over 10.000 eggs per day. The eggs are often found in dry goods such as grains, beans, and rice.  This worm causes blood loss that will lead to anemia.

Hookworms: A microscopic worm that sucks  your blood through your intestinal wall. Damage to the intestinal wall causes blood loss, leading to anemia. This worm has been known to get into the heart, causing a fatal infection. Animal feces often carry hookworms.  There are few symptoms that accompany this infection, and are often not experienced until there is damage to the heart or intestines.


The best parasite cleanse:  Dr. Omar Amin’s parasite cleanse; “Freedom, Cleanse, Restore” can be found here



Dr. Omar Amin’s Parasite Testing and Parasite Cleanse

Dr. Omar Amin is the leading expert in parasitology in the United States.  His vast knowledge in this realm is impressive.  Parasites are a topic that most people choose to ignore because they are thought to be “dirty” and certainly could not exist in the United States.  Well, I think that point of view is rather dangerous to the health of many.  It is my opinion that many people, especially those with chronic Lyme disease, have an underlying parasite issue as part of their overall health challenge.

Dr. Amin spoke at the Physician’s Round Table in Tampa Florida which was held January 24-27, 2013.  Not only did he speak, but he was given a special award of recognition for all of his hard work in the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic conditions.  His lab is one of the best in the country for parasite testing.  Recently, he formulated a 3-part product called Freedom, Cleanse, and Restore to help rid the body of parasites including Ancylostoma duodenale, and other organisms based on his many years of research.

Parasite Cleanse

While RX anti-parasitics are often very useful as well, his all-natural product represents one of the best options for the treatment of parasites formulated by one of the leading experts in the world in this area of medicine.

I share here his presentation from the event with his permission.  It was an excellent summary of the many different issues in dealing with parasites.  A special thank you to Dr. Amin for allowing me to post his presentation here.  Also a warning that some of the photographs in the presentation are difficult to look at so be prepared if you decide to REVIEW THE SLIDES. Click HERE to see the latest video of his presentation on parasite cleanses and HERE to see the latest video of his presentation on “Understanding Parasites” , both filmed at the Physcicians Round Table Conference in Tampa, Florida at the end of January 2013. If you are interested in trying Freedom, Cleanse, and Restore, you can find out more information here.  Additionally, for some of the best parasite testing in the world, you may want to ask your doctor to consider ordering from the Parasitology Center in Arizona where Dr. Amin has his lab.

Note: I have no financial connection to Dr. Amin nor do I benefit from the sale of his products.



Ancylostoma duodenale, hookworm

Ancylostoma duodenale


A 58 year old man with iron deficiency anemia was referred to our Unit for a wireless capsule endoscopy

Study. He had no diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or rectal bleeding.

A hemoccult test was positive, so he had been previously studied with a full colonosocpy, upper endoscopy

and small bowel series with negative resultaste patient had no family history of cancer or inflammatory bowel


He had not past history of peptic disease, NSAIDs intake or alcohol consuption.

Celiac disease was also ruled out and a hematologic consultation show not any other specific consultation.

A wireless capsule endoscopy study was done, showing multiple round small ulcers, some fresh and some

covered with black fibrina, along the distal jejunum and ileum.

At ileum several white, small filliform figures attached to the bowel wall were found. They showed a slightly

dilatated reddish portion in the anchorage point.

A suspicion diagnosis of hookworm disease was done, confirmed with a direct fecal examination

which showed oval eggs .

Treatment with iron repletion and antihelmintic therapy with albendazole was started, and the anemia




Hookworm infection is a worlwide intestinal parasitic disease afeccting more than one billion people.

It is caused by the nematodes Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylonicum.

A duodenale and N americanus are white, cylindrical worms 0.8-1.5 cm long. Ancylostoma duodenale (Old

World hookworm) is found in most areas of the World , especially Asia, Africa, Middle East and Southern

Europe. In North and South America  predominates Necator americanus (New World hookworm).

Adult hookworms anchor themselves in the mucosa of the small intestine. The teeth of the adult hookworm

allow it to grip the intestinal mucosa. The worm secretes an anticoagulant that facilitates the ingestion of

blood and juices from its host. They periodically change their location, which can explain the multiple,

different stage ulcers we found in the capsule exam.

Although hookworm infection represents an important public health problem in developing countries the

immigration process to Western countries has increased the recognition of this disease as a cause of

anemia. Diagnosis of hookworm is usually based on finding the characteristic eggs in the stool. The clinical

manifestations of hookworm infection depends on the life cycle of the organism and the intensity of infection.

The symptoms include skin irritation, pruritus, cough, wheezing, epigastric pain or abdominal tenderness.

However the hallmark of chronic hookworm disease is iron deficiency anemia, as was the case of our